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The MICROSCOPY-PAM is an extremely sensitive non-imaging chlorophyll fluorometer specialized to measure smallest spots in microscopic specimen like tissue preparations or suspensions.

Essentially, the fluorometer consists of a modified epi-fluorescence microscope equipped with a modulated LED light source and a photomultiplier for detection of modulated chlorophyll fluorescence.


The MICROSCOPY-PAM system uses a Zeiss AxioScope.A1 epifluorescence microscope. By default, the microscope is equipped with a wide-aperture Zeiss Fluar objective with 20-fold magnification. Standard light source for fluorescence excitation is the blue Zeiss LED-Modul 470 nm.

A special pulse modulation regime permits the use if the same LED module as source for measuring and actinic light as well as for saturation pulses. The use of other Zeiss LED modules emitting at different wavelengths in the UV-A and visible spectral range will be considered on customer request.

Chlorophyll fluorescence is detected by a photomultiplier mounted on a special detector-ocular of the microscope. The ocular is equipped with an iris diaphragm with which the field of view can be narrowed down. A special dichroic beamsplitter filterset serves for effective separation of broadband fluorescence emission (λ>650 nm).